Ao Phang Nga National Park is located at the Andaman sea shore of Thailand in Kra Som sub district, Ka Lai sub district, Khlong Khian sub district of Amphoe Ta Gua Tung, Ko Panyi district of Amphoe Muang Phanga and Ko Yao Noi sub district, Ko Yao Yai of Amphue Ko Yao, Phang Nga province. Its border adjacent to the following areas :
North : adjacent to mangrove forest of Amphoe Phang Nga, Phang Nga province.
South : adjacent to the sea of Amphoe Ko Yao, Phang Nga province and the sea of Phuket province.
East : adjacent to Krabi province.
West : adjacent to mangrove forest and the sea shore of Amphoe Ta Kua Tung and Amphoe Muang Phang Nga, Phang Nga province.
More than 80 percent of the Phang Nga Bay National Park is sea which most of sea floor is mud and sand. There are many limestone mountains emerging from the sea throughout Phang Nga bay. These beautiful, distinct and strange mountains consists of small and big islands about 42 islands such as Tao mountain island, Pra Art Tao island, etc. , each island has a different nature and beautiful uniqueness.
The climate experienced in Phangnga Bay is tropical marine, with characteristic high rainfall and year round high temperatures. Thirty year records of Meteological Department of Thailand (1961-1990) collected at Takua Pa weather station indicate that rain is abundant in the south-west monsoon season from May to October. The average annual rainfall is 3,560.5 mm. and the average total rain days is 189 days. The temperature fluctuates between 23 * C and 32 * C. The average relative humidity is 83 %.
Flora and Fauna
Plant society in the Phang Nga Bay National Park could be divided into 3 types as follows :
- Mangrove forest in the limestone mountainwhich found a lot of important plants in mangrove forest upto 12 types such as Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Xylocarpus granatum, etc. In addition, also found sea holly and a lot of Acrostichum aureum which growing up in the bank area or mud soil. Sea cyad is found a little bit in only the oponed area or destroyed area.
- Mangrove forest in the cell and quatsite rock mountainwhich found the 7 important types of plants such as Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Xylocarpus granatum, etc. The other important low level plant found in this area is the dense growing sea holly.
- Mangrove forest in sandstone mountain which found a little bit of important plants because this area is very far from the main land. The 5 types of important plants here are Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia ovata, Aegialites rotundifolia, Xylocarpus granatum and Melaleuca leucadendron. In addition, samed would be found in the area adjacent to land forest which has the lower salt level.
Defined as the evergreen forest which is rainforest and classified as follows :
- Land forest on the limestone mountain which could be found throughout the national park, there are 2 types : the first is the forest on the plain land and the forest on the area so called Karst which is a valley area. They consist of the important plants such as Aporosa aurea, Hopea ferrea Heim. and Cassia alata Linn. Also, there are many important low level plants such as Fishtail palm. The second is the forest on the moisture high area on a limestone mountain which consists of small and short plants such as Hopea ferrea Heim., Water wisteria, etc.
- Land forest on the cell quatsite rock mountainwhich found a lot of plants growing in the foot of mountain with very high moisture, we can find yang na woods scattering throughout this area and also find other important plants such as Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth., Bruguira gymnorrhiza, Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr., etc. while the low level plants found here are Bambusa arundinacea Wild, Glass, etc.
- Land forest on a sandstonewould be found on the slope area which has a lot of tree and not too high. There is a little bit of the low level plants here, most of them are grasses because of infertile soil. The important plants are Bruguira gymnorrhiza, Sesban, etc.
Aquatic Plant Society
Could be classified as Padina, red alge, Halimida and including a lot of sea grass and plant planton.
From survey could be classified as follows :
- Mammal animals, from survey could be found upto 27 types such as Macaca irus, Semnopithecus obscurus, Hylobates lar, etc. In addition, also found the important aquatic mammal animals such as Infonesian white dolphin, Malayan dolphin, Finless porpoise.
- Birds have been found totally 120 types, the important ones are Little heron, Pacific reef-egret, Little egret, etc.
- Reptiles have been found totally 26 types such as Siamese box terrapin, Pseudoxenodon macrops (Blyth), etc.
- Amphibians have been found 4 types such as Rana cancrivora, R. limnocharis, Rhaco phorusleucomystax, etc.
- Fishes consists of squat-headed hammer head shark sphyrna tudes, freshwater ater stingray dasyatis bleekeri, Moray eel, Puffer fish and many kinds of fish which live in the coral such as Butterfly fish and the economical valued fishes such as short-bodied mackerel
- Other animals in the same type of shrimp, shell, crab and low class animals with no spines including many kinds of coral such as Cauliflower Coral, Staghorn Coral and staghorn coral.